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The SWELL1-LRRC8 complex regulates endothelial AKT-eNOS signaling and vascular function

Thu, 2021-02-25 05:00

Elife. 2021 Feb 25;10:e61313. doi: 10.7554/eLife.61313. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The endothelium responds to numerous chemical and mechanical factors in regulating vascular tone, blood pressure and blood flow. The endothelial volume regulatory anion channel (VRAC) has been proposed to be mechano-sensitive and thereby sense fluid flow and hydrostatic pressure to regulate vascular function. Here, we show that the Leucine Rich Repeat Containing Protein 8a, LRRC8A (SWELL1) is required for VRAC in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Endothelial LRRC8A regulates AKT-eNOS signaling under basal, stretch and shear-flow stimulation, forms a GRB2-Cav1-eNOS signaling complex, and is required for endothelial cell alignment to laminar shear flow. Endothelium-restricted Lrrc8a KO mice develop hypertension in response to chronic angiotensin-II infusion and exhibit impaired retinal blood flow with both diffuse and focal blood vessel narrowing in the setting of Type 2 diabetes (T2D). These data demonstrate that LRRC8A regulates AKT-eNOS in endothelium and is required for maintaining vascular function, particularly in the setting of T2D.

PMID:33629656 | DOI:10.7554/eLife.61313

Single-cell RNA sequencing in vision research: Insights into human retinal health and disease

Thu, 2020-12-31 05:00

Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 Dec 28:100934. doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2020.100934. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Gene expression provides valuable insight into cell function. As such, vision researchers have frequently employed gene expression studies to better understand retinal physiology and disease. With the advent of single-cell RNA sequencing, expression experiments provide an unparalleled resolution of information. Instead of studying aggregated gene expression across all cells in a heterogenous tissue, single-cell technology maps RNA to an individual cell, which facilitates grouping of retinal and choroidal cell types for further study. Single-cell RNA sequencing has been quickly adopted by both basic and translational vision researchers, and single-cell level gene expression has been studied in the visual systems of animal models, retinal organoids, and primary human retina, RPE, and choroid. These experiments have generated detailed atlases of gene expression and identified new retinal cell types. Likewise, single-cell RNA sequencing investigations have characterized how gene expression changes in the setting of many retinal diseases, including how choroidal endothelial cells are altered in age-related macular degeneration. In addition, this technology has allowed vision researcher to discover drivers of retinal development and model rare retinal diseases with induced pluripotent stem cells. In this review, we will overview the growing number of single-cell RNA sequencing studies in the field of vision research. We will summarize experimental considerations for designing single-cell RNA sequencing experiments and highlight important advancements in retinal, RPE, choroidal, and retinal organoid biology driven by this technology. Finally, we generalize these findings to genes involved in retinal degeneration and outline the future of single-cell expression experiments in studying retinal disease.

PMID:33383180 | DOI:10.1016/j.preteyeres.2020.100934

Predominance of hyperopia in autosomal dominant Best vitelliform macular dystrophy

Fri, 2020-11-27 05:00

Br J Ophthalmol. 2020 Nov 26:bjophthalmol-2020-317763. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2020-317763. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients with BEST1-associated autosomal dominant Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (AD-BVMD) have been reported to be hyperopic, but the prevalence of refractive error has not been described. This study aimed to characterise the type and degree of refractive error in a large cohort of patients with AD-BVMD compared with an age-similar group with ABCA4-associated Stargardt disease.

METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of consecutive patients with molecularly confirmed AD-BVMD and Stargardt macular dystrophy seen at a single academic centre. Demographic information, including age, gender and genotype were extracted from the chart. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), as well as type and degree of refractive error on manifest refraction for each eye on each visit, were recorded and compared.

RESULTS: A total of 178 eyes from 89 patients with AD-BVMD (35 women, 54 men; mean age 36.6 years) and 306 eyes from 153 patients (94 women, 59 men, mean age 30.2 years) with Stargardt disease were included in the study. Mean BCVA was excellent for both AD-BVMD and Stargardt eyes (logMAR 0.23 vs logMAR 0.31, respectively; p=0.55). At initial refraction, 73.0% of AD-BVMD eyes (130/178) were hyperopic, with mean spherical equivalent (SE) +1.38 dioptres (median +0.88) whereas 80.7% of Stargardt eyes (247/306) were myopic, with mean SE of -1.76 dioptres (median -1.19) (p<0.001).

CONCLUSION: Patients with AD-BVMD are predominantly hyperopic, whereas those with Stargardt disease are predominantly myopic. The findings provide further evidence of a role for BEST1 in ocular growth and development.

PMID:33243830 | DOI:10.1136/bjophthalmol-2020-317763